The BackShop Journal

A Web Magazine of Arts, Culture and Orthodox Christian Spirituality

  • Liberalism

    Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but generally they support ideas and political programmes such as freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom...
  • Immanuel Kant

    Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) is one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western philosophy. His contributions to metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, and aesthetics have had a profound impact on almost every philosophical movement that followed him. Kant was born in Königsberg, Prus...
  • The Age of Enlightenment

    In general terms, the Enlightenment was an intellectual movement, developed mainly in France, Britain and Germany, which advocated freedom, democracy and reason as the primary values of society. It started from the standpoint that men's minds should be freed from ignorance, from superstition and fro...
  • Cogito ergo sum

    In his Second Meditation, French Philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650) tries to establish absolute certainty about existence in his famous conclusion Cogito, ergo sum, or "I think, therefore I am." His Meditations are conducted from the first-person perspective, from Descartes' point of vie...
  • Rationalism vs. Empiricism

    The dispute between rationalism and empiricism concerns the extent to which we are dependent upon sense experience in our effort to gain knowledge. Rationalists argue that there are significant ways in which our concepts and knowledge are gained independently of sense experience. They tend to think...
Featured Article
Russian Avant-Garde, the "Black Square" and Primordial Forms
One of the most impressive and influential phenomena in the intellectual, spiritual and artistic upheaval in Russia around the time of the Revolution was the Russian avant-garde in visual arts. Two of its most prominent representatives were Kazimir Malevich (1878-1935) and Wassily Kandinsky (1866-19...
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